Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Classes
Scientific functions in the hypotheses of finances and credit, based on the specification of the research girokonto wechseln object, are characterized to be many sided and several-leveled.
The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of funds, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:
1) “… Finances represent economical connections, creation of the funds of money sources, in the method of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is provided relatively to the conditions of capitalist economy, when money-commodity connections develop worldwide nature;
2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is introduced without showing the environment of its own action. We discuss partly such explanation of finances and believe expedient to create some specification.
This latest first appears to be a component of value of primary industrial funds, afterwards it’s moved to the cost price of a prepared merchandise (that’s to the worth also) and as a result of its its realization, also it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into consideration before hand as a depression sort in the consistence of the ready products cost value.
First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though this is a fundamental foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the segment of financial domain name, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value in a year), but to the distribution of already created worth.
Funds exist to the country level and also on the makes and lernen die Tatsachen jetzt hier branches’ amount too, and such states, when the most part of the produces aren’t state.
V. M. Rodionova makes an emphasis of finances, as doling out Pop auf dieser Website relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial basis of finances.
In the guides of the political economy the financial meet using the following definitions of finances:
“The system of development and usage of essential funds of money assets for ensure socialistic widened additional production signify exactly the finances of the socialistic culture. And the totality of economical relationships appeared between state, produces and organizations, branches, areas and different citizen based on the movement of cash funds make fiscal relations”.
As we’ve found, definitions of funds made by financiers and political economists tend not to differ significantly.
In every discussed position there are:
1) expression of essence and happening in the definition of finances;
2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources to the degree of phenomenon.
3) Distribution of finances as social merchandise and also the worthiness of national revenue, definition of the distributions planned nature, principal aims of the market and economic connections, for servicing which it is used.
If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the meaning of funds, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We fulfill with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the contemporary economic literature. We may give this elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. They issue “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This newest is really actual, relatively to the process of privatization as well as the transition to solitude and is periodically used in practice in various countries, as an example, UK and France.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.
We meet with entirely innovational definitions of funds in Z. physique and R. Merton’s basis guides. “Finance – it’s the science about how the people lead spending ‘the deficit money assets and incomes in the certain period of time. The monetary decisions are defined by the expenses and incomes which are 1) distinguished in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account ahead neither by those who get decisions nor another individual” .
These basic concepts and quantitative models are utilized at each level of getting monetary decisions, but in the most recent definition of funds, we meet with the next doctrine of the financial basis: primary function of the funds is in the fulfillment of the individuals requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (companies, also state organs of every degree) are directed towards executing this basic function.
For the aims of our monograph, it is vital to evaluate wellknown definitions about finances, credit and investing, to decide how and how significantly it’s conceivable to incorporate the finances, investments and credit into the one total section.
Some research worker thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, in case it’s discussed in the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous team shows, that an economic class of credit exists parallel to the economic category of funds, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s being in the consistency of funds.
responds that functioning of cash created an economic foundation for apportioning finances and credit as an independent class and gave rise to the credit and fiscal relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has company with all the research of such economic connections, which tend upon cashflow and credit.
This is the traditional definition of credit.
Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological guides of political economy: “credit is the program of money relationships, which will be made in the process of using and mobilization of briefly free cash signifies of the state budget, unions, fabricates, organizations and population. Credit comes with an objective nature. It’s useful for providing widened additional production of the state as well as other needs. Credit is different from finances by the returning character, while funding of makes and businesses by the state is executed without this this disorder”.
Let us discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in today’s publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For instance, we meet with all the next definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the mortgage by means of of money and merchandise together with the states of returning, normally, by paying percentage. Credit signifies a sort of motion of the loan money and expresses economic relationships between the creditor and borrower”.
We meet with all the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economic group, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or individuals transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the states of returning. Development of credit is conditioned by way of a historical process of satisfying the economic and cash relationships, the form of which is the cash connection”.
Following scientific researchers give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or product as a debt for the defined periods by the price of fixed percentage. Therefore, a credit is the loan by means of of cash or commodity. In the process of this loan’s motion, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical individual, who gives specific cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Joining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is offering cash capital of goods as a debt, for certain terms and material provision below the cost of firm percent rate. It expresses definite economical connections involving the individuals of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit connections is conditioned, from 1 side, by assembling solid quantity of briefly free cash sources, and from the second side, existence of petitions of these.